Improving Beginning Reading Literacy through Marungko Approach

  • Marilou T Boltron
  • Ariel L Ramos
Keywords: illiteracy, teaching beginning reading, Marungko approach, quasi-experimental


The development of reading competence among young children is fundamentally crucial in improving educational outcomes and has far-reaching implications. In fact, the competence to read by an individual can transform him into a valuable economic asset for a country as pointed out by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). However, despite this fact on the implied relationship of reading competence to a country’s economic growth, the Philippines turned out to be the last among 79 countries based on the report provided by the OECD through its Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) in 2019 of which Filipino students around the age of 15 got a rating of 340 points in reading comprehension, lower than the average of 487 points. Thus, this study contends that this reading comprehension problem can be intervened and corrected by educators at the ground level by developing reading comprehension skills through an effective beginning reading teaching approach for its learners at the beginning reading stage to authentically develop and solidify the foundational reading competencies of the learners such as the ability to identify letter name, identify letter sound, discriminate initial sound, read familiar words and read oral passage before promoting them to the next level. It is in this context that beginning reading teachers may explore beginning reading teaching approaches such as the Marungko approach to help improve in the teaching of these foundational reading competencies. Thus, this quasi-experimental study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the Marungko Approach in developing these foundational reading competencies of Grade 1 Learners. Findings reveal that there is a significant difference between the pre and post-test level of beginning reading competencies being tested. Hence it is concluded that Marungko Approach is an effective key in improving the learners’ reading performance in the beginning reading stage which is also a crucial foundation in the development of more micro-competencies in reading resulting to an improved and solidified reading comprehension skills that are crucial in the higher level of the educative process.



Ali, N., & Urbano, J. O. (1967). Bumasa tayo at sumulat. Angat, Bulacan, De los Santos Community School.

Anstey, M., G. (2004). The literacy labyrinth. (2nd Ed.). Frenchs Forest, New South Wales: Pearson Education Australia.
Brink, S., & Nel, C. (2019). Contradictions within an activity of second language reading literacy. South African Journal of Childhood Education (SAJCE), 9(1) doi:

Bourgoin, R., & Dicks, J. (2019). Learning to read in multiple languages: A study exploring allophone students’ reading development in french immersion. Language and Literacy, 21(2), 10-28. doi:

Bustos-Orosa, M.A., Ferrer, M.F. (2013). A qualitative analysis of the decoding error patterns among Filipino beginning readers transitioning to the Marungko approach. De La Salle University Manila, Philippines.

Cook, T. D., & Campbell, D. T. (1979). Quasi-experimentation: Design & analysis issues in field settings. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

De Belen, D. (2017). Using marungko approach in beginning reading. San Pablo Elementary School. Bataan. Retrieved from

Edelman, P. (2017). Reading comprehension for beginning readers. Retrieved from

Esmer, B., & Günes, A. M. (2019). The usage of meaning ıdentification technique in measuring reading comprehension skills. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 11(4), 413-420.

Faustino, J. B., Santos, P. P. E., Distajo, L. F. E., & Ladia, C. C. (2013). Analyzing the textbook used for public kindergarten classrooms in the Philippines, Harris Journal of Education, 1(1), 85-101.

Flores, J., (2014). Marungko Approach. Retrieved from

Gove, A. and Wetterberg A. (2011). THE EARLY GRADE READING ASSESSMENT: Applications and Interventions to Improve Basic Literacy. Research Triangle Institute. RTI Press Publication.
Hammill DD. What we know about correlates of reading. Exceptional Children. 2004;70(4):453–468. [Google Scholar]

Hanushek, E. A., & Woessmann, L. (2009). Do better schools lead to more growth? Cognitive skills, economic outcomes, and causation. Working Paper 14633. Cambridge, Massachusetts: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Jeon, E. (2012). Oral reading fluency in second language reading. Retrieved from

Khalfaoui, A. (2018). Rethinking early literacies. reading and rewriting worlds. International Journal of Educational Psychology, 7(2), 227-229. Retrieved from

Khorramdel, L., Pokropek, A., Joo, S., Kirsch, I., & Halderman, L. (2020). Examining gender DIF and gender differences in the PISA 2018 reading literacy scale: A partial invariance approach. Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling, 62(2), 179-231. Retrieved from

Koyuncu, I., & Fırat, T. (2020). Investigating reading literacy in PISA 2018 assessment. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 13(2), 263-275. doi:

Laud-Reyno, L. (2014). Marungko approach: Sagot sa mabilisang pagkatuto ng mga bata sa pagbasa. San Manuel, Isabela. Retrieved from marungko-approach.html.

McBride-Chang C. (1999). The ABCs of the ABCs: The development of letter-name and letter-sound knowledge. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly. 45(2):285–308. [Google Scholar] [Ref list]

Miller, I. and Miller, M. (2004). John E. Freund’s Mathematical Statistics with Applications; 7th edition; Pearson Prentice-Hall; Upper Saddle River, NJ.
OECD (2019b). PISA 2018 results volume I: What students know and can do. Paris: OECD Publishing.

Piasta, S. B., & Wagner, R. K. (2010). Developing Early Literacy Skills: A Meta-Analysis of Alphabet Learning and Instruction. Reading research quarterly, 45(1), 8–38.

Ramos, A. (2021). Content Knowledge and Pedagogical Skills of Teacher and Its Relationship with Learner’s Academic Performance in Learning English. International Journal of Educational Science and Research (IJESR). 11 (1), 11-16

Talley, L. A. (2017). Best teaching strategies to help struggling readers. (PhD Dissertation, Carson-Newman University). Retrieved from gh_Talley.pdf

Torgesen JK. The prevention of reading difficulties. Journal of School Psychology. 2002;40(1):7–26. doi:10.1016/S0022-4405(01)00092-9.

Torppa M, Poikkeus A-M, Laakso M-L, Eklund K, Lyytinen H. (2006). Predicting delayed letter knowledge development and its relation to grade 1 reading achievement among children with and without familial risk for dyslexia. Developmental Psychology. 42(6):1128–1142. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.42.6.1128.

Walgermo, B. R., Foldnes, N., Per, H. U., & Solheim, O. J. (2018). Developmental dynamics of early reading skill, literacy interest and readers’ self-concept within the first year of formal schooling. Reading and Writing, 31(6), 1379-1399. doi:

Yayen, C.P. (2018). Effectiveness of Marungko Approach on the English Reading Performance and Comprehension Skills of First Grade Thai Learners. Asian Journal of Governance and Education. 1 (1), 61-74.
How to Cite
Boltron, M. T., & Ramos, A. L. (2021). Improving Beginning Reading Literacy through Marungko Approach. ASEAN Journal of Basic and Higher Education, 5(1), 1-12. Retrieved from